The world has enjoyed tremendous improvements in health over the past century. We have gained almost 20 years in life expectancy globally over the past 50 years. Just to give one example, children in Chile now can expect to live to age 79, while in 1950 they could expect to live to 55. Much of this improvement in the health of populations comes from changes in the world around us, structural efforts that create the conditions that enable population health. Some of these core changes in the past century were improvements in food supplies, sanitation, cleaner air, and declining birth rates.
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